Genetic information which has to be carried on to next generation is packed in the nucleus of the cell. It contains the genetic material of the cell in the form of chromosomes. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. Chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes. Chromosomes are considered to be the vehicles of heredity as they carry genes. Genes are small points on the chromosome responsible for one character of an individual.
Genes on chromosomes help in the inheritance or transfer of characteristics from the parents to the offspring.
DNA is the nucleic acid which stores and transfers genetic information necessary for the development of new cells or organisms. DNA gives rise to RNA by the process of transcription.
RNA, ribonucleic acid codes for amino acids. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis where information on the mRNA molecule is translated into proteins.
Proteins are responsible for the traits. Traits are expressed in the form of proteins. Traits exhibited can be represented by genotype and phenotype of an individual.
Genotype is the internal genetic constitution of a particular trait. Phenotype is the physical character that is expressed in the form of a trait.
Traits are expressed in the form of genotypes and phenotypes.